7th armored division battle of the bulge

7th armored division battle of the bulge

We weren’t able to retire before 0300 hours on 23 December. There were caught with their pants down. The hierarchy given here is at a moment nearly at the end of the Battle. Jones, Alan W., Jr. (423rd Infantry Regiment, 106th Infantry Division): Moranda, Robert (38th Armored Infantry Battalion, 7th Armored Division): "Bob's Story: Memories of Love and War" Click, Merriam, Lt. Robert and T/3 Hugh Williamson (4th I&H Section), Holding the Line: U. S. V Corps stops the 1st SS Panzer Corps, Hell at Bütgenbach: We fight and die here, Desperate Stand: The Bitter Defense of the Schnee Eifel (VIII Corps at St. Vith - 106th Inf Div), The Battle for St. Vith: 17th-23rd December 1944 (VIII Corps at St. Vith - 7th Armd Div), Operations of the 3rd Fallschirmjaeger-Division: Defense of the North Sector between December 1944 and January 1945. Initially when we came down we were not given an Army order. So if you see something missing, please let me know. When shown these notes later the general requested that they be turned over to him for revision, as he thought he had been too frank in his criticism. It took us a long time to plan it. The only railroad on the entire front to cross from Germany into Belgium came to St. Vith, Belgium, making St. Vith, which was also a major road junction. Loss and Redemption at St. Vith: The 7th Armored Division in the Battle of the Bulge (American Military Experience) | Fontenot, Gregory | ISBN: 9780826221926 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. A thing like this takes time. Order of Battle - WWII - ETO; 7th ARMORED DIVISION; Return to Table of Contents "Lucky Seventh" The mixture of insignia and distinctive colors of several arms incorporated in the Armored Force symbolize integrity and esprit. I decided to hold this valley Vielsalm – Petit Their – Poteau with defense to the north and to back up CCA after they recaptured Poteau. The traffic situation was very bad. While he covers the entire history of the division, Fontenot concentrates his account on the unit's stand at St. Vith (Dec. 16-22). 303rd Engineer Combat Battalion I don't believe there were seven divisions in the vicinity, but rather about five. Of course Corps was so far away and had such a wide front so thinly held that the Germans just filtered between them. The 7th Armored Division had to move 60-70 miles to the south on Day 2. Our people were on the road trying to go east. [Manteuffel press conference of 22 December 1964 in Watertown, NY], Hitler did not accept Manteuffel's recommendation, and the German supplies began to run out. Then I think the traffic -- well we had a schedule and everybody kept to it. I finally decided I was wasting time. For now, this is primarily a link page, a focal point for Battle of the Bulge (Ardennes Offensive) information on the web. It was apparently timed with Nordwind (in Alsace) on New Year's Day. General Montgomery's representative asked if I wanted to stay there and I told him no, not unless higher command thought it was critical terrain. Portion of title: 7th Armored Division in the Battle of the Bulge: Series: The American military experience series American military experience series. Then when 112 th came in it naturally attached itself to the infantry division. The links given here are to pages that provide solid links for someone to follow to gain in-depth information on these units' role in the Bulge, primarily for the purpose of finding a relative's story - e.g. It began late in the war, six months after the Allied invasion of Normandy, with the Germans on their heels, reeling from losses and ongoing retreats across most of France, Italy, Holland, and Belgium. You have to disentangle yourself first. And it is a work in progress. The following comments are in reply to various oral questions asked by the interviewer. In addition, ground visibility for the troops was often very low, due to the trees and fog. For all Divisions, you may also want to see their brief history in the Center for Military History's "Combat Chronicle" web pages. It took us a long time to plan it. 578th Field Artillery Battalion: at Heckhuscheid, Germany when offensive began, fought as infantry with 424th Infantry of 106th Infantry Division, then 20 Dec moved west of Bastogne (no web site found, but here are documentary links: 590th Ambulance Company: followed 4th Armored Division to bring the first ambulances into Bastogne, a "colored" battalion (no web site found, but here are documentary links: 602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion: one of the first units of Third Army to reach Bastogne, possibly a "colored" battalion (no web site found, but here are documentary links: 771st Field Artillery Battalion: at Sibret, (no web site found, but here are documentary links: 293rd Engineer Combat Battalion - Company C in Luxembourg City in January 1945, attached to Gen. Patton's HQ, British troops killed by buzz bomb at Antwerp, 17th Ariborne Division: in England at the start; flew to Rheims Dec. 27; helped close the Bulge as part of Third Army, 9th Troop Carrier Command: drops of supplies and gliders of medical replacements to Bastogne, 36th Bombardment Squadron: Dec. 19 Attempt to jam German tank radios at Bastogne, Boxing Day (Dec. 26) devastation of St. Vith, Belgium, Boyer, Donald (38th Armored Infantry Battalion, 7th Armored Division), Burke, James (299th Engineer Combat Battalion). A thing like this takes time. To fully understand the hierarchy at any given moment in the Battle, you must not rely on this page alone. 301st Engineer Combat Battalion German columns ran low on gas and ammunition well before reaching even their first major goal: the Meuse River. I heard a story, but you'll have to check on it, that some wounded German said, Remembering and Honoring a Young Soldier - Pfc Solomon D. Mosner, St Vith and the 106th Division In the Bulge, My Battle of the Bulge – Before and Beyond, Loss and Redemption at St. Vith: The 7th Armored Division in the Battle of the Bulge (Book), Foxholes and Christmas of long ago Remembered…, Breakfast in the Beautiful Snowy Ardennes Forest, The 318th Inf Regt in the Bastogne Saliant, German Officer Vindicates 106th Recc Troop. I had something at Bouvigny for a time, but I don't know just now what it was. 260th Engineer Combat Battalion What they told me about the situation was very sketchy. The weather was chilly mist and fog, so that Allied air support was nullified until December 23. Even when the 7th Armored Division had reached St. Vith, … We were hungry and thirsty but fortunately the 82, We had another Task Force under Lindsay, who was from the 14, After the attack at St Vith we had to take positions pretty much in the shape of "goose-egg". However, when his combat command arrived the road was so congested by the retiring 14. Therefore, these statements should not be directly quoted without prior approval Brigadier General Hasbrouck. It was closed out quickly with a counter-attack by "two companies from the Suffolks" on January 8, 1945. One of the funniest orders I ever issued was for Lieutenant Colonel Jones to take two tank destroyers and bring them to Rogery and protect the 112th Infantry Regiment (this was during the withdrawal). Originally the 106 th Division had CCB of the 9 th Armored Division attached. We weren’t able to retire before 0300 hours on 23 December. In the original plan, three Armies (the Sixth Panzer Army [referred to by Hitler as Sixth SS Panzer Army but not formally designated as SS at the time - Cole, p. 76], Fifth Panzer Army, and Seventh Army) would attack. He really had about ⅔ of the combat elements of the 7. Finally First Army ordered XVIII Corps to withdrawn and General Ridgway didn't like it.He came to see me, wanted to know why. The rounded portion of the horseshoe was composed of Colonel Dwight Rosebaum’s CCA, 7th Armored between Poteau and Rodt and General … This is the order of battle of German and Allied forces during the Battle of the Bulge — specifically, at a point near the end of the battle, which lasted from 16 December 1944 until 25 January 1945. This is very unfortunate, since it ignores the real military keys (holding the northern shoulder and holding St. Vith) to the defeat of the Germans. The dense forest had very few roads, none of which were large. This narrative centers on the 7th Armored Division for the entire length of the campaign, in so doing reconsidering the story of the whole battle through the lens of a single division. It was no accident that St. Vith was right in the very center of the Fifth and Sixth Panzer Armies: St. Vith had to be the main line of supply for both Armies. The Battle of the Bulge is considered by most military scholars as the greatest campaign in the storied history of the United States Army. British 1st Northamptonshire Yeomanry Armored Regiment: 296th Engineer Combat Battalion: Houffalize late in the Bulge, 2nd Cavalry Group (2nd & 42nd Cav Rcn Sqdns): crossed from France into Luxembourg 23 Dec 44 and guarded XII Corps' right flank along the Moselle River [No official website found but very useful -- though very hard to navigate -- site found, 4th Infantry Division: bore brunt of attack at Echternach, Luxembourg, XII Corps: 4th Inf Div, 9th Armd Div(-), 10th Armd(elem), 109th Rgt of 28th Inf div, 2nd Cav Gp, 282nd Engineer Combat Battalion: arrived in France 25 Dec 44; moved into combat, manning road blocks at Bech, Luxemboug 13-23 Jan 45 and at Christnach, Luxembourg 23-30 Jan 45, 285th Engineer Combat Battalion: arrived in France 9 Jan 45; moved into positions SE of Luxembourg City at Dalheim 20 Jan 45; moved to front line at Greiveldange 21 Jan 45, III Corps: See 4th Armd Div, 26th Inf Div, 80th Inf Div, 26th Infantry Division: western Luxembourg, between 4th Armd Div to west and 80th Inf Div to east, 80th Infantry Division: came up from south to make far eastern end of center of southern shoulder, between 26th Inf to west and XII Corps to east. Dec) 3892 QM Truck Company participated in emptying of gas dump north of Stavelot; (15 Jan) 3892 QM Truck Company participated in recovery of bodies of Malmédy Massacre victims at Baugnez, 238th Engineer Combat Battalion: Manhay (See, 291st Engineer Combat Battalion (the "Damned Engineers" Battalion): Trois Ponts, Stavelot, Malmédy, 300th Engineer Combat Battalion: December: Modave Castle, Janee; January: Filot, Xhoris, Louveigne, La Gleize, 84th Infantry Division (Hotton - Marche) - I find no web site of the 84th Infantry Division, but there is a web page with the text of their history, 14th Cavalry (bore brunt of attack at Losheim Gap), 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion: Baugnez (the Malmédy Massacre), 333rd Field Artillery Group, consisting of, 402nd Field Artillery Group, consisting of, 559th Field Artillery Battalion: see 402nd Field Artillery Group, 561st Field Artillery Battalion: see 402nd Field Artillery Group, 578th Field Artillery Battalion: see 402nd Field Artillery Group, 969th Engineer Maintenance Company: Vielsalm, then north to Maastricht, 969th Field Artillery Battalion: see 333rd Field Artillery Group, 18th Volksgrenadier Division: attack on St. Vith, from northeast, 44th Engineer Combat Battalion: defense of Wiltz, Luxembourg, 398th Engineer General Service Regiment: arrived Luxembourg 23 December 1944 - exact locations unknown, other than casualties at Munshausen, 447th Anitaircraft Battalion: defense of Wiltz, Luxembourg, 630th Tank Destroyer Battalion: defense of Wiltz, Luxembourg, 707th Tank Battalion: defense of Wiltz, Luxembourg. St Vith was a very important place to the Germans because of all these roads and railroad. Most accounts of the Battle of the Bulge give short-shrift to the interval during which the German forward progress stopped and the American counterattack began. It is, at once, a thoroughly informed tactical analysis of the Battle of St. Vith, an insightful study in command, and a thoughtful commentary on the relative capabilities of the American and German armies in late 1944. And the panzers did succeed in bypassing Bastogne, so that their plan in that sector was on schedule. Click here to order on Amazon.com. General Clarke had two battalions of infantry, an engineer company, a battalion of tanks, one tank destroyer company and as time went on got another battalion of tanks. The Defense of the “Fortified Goose Egg” The author of a number of valuable histories on the U.S. Army, retired colonel Fontenot has produced an excellent account of the largely overlooked role of the 7 th Armored Division in the Battle of the Bulge. Tag Archives: 5th Armored Division. Any unit anywhere in the Bulge or along the edge of the Bulge was in combat with German units. Contents. Footnote: Earl Combs was serving with the 38th Armored Infantry Battalion, 7th Armored Division when he was in action during the Battle of St, Vith in Belgium, one of several battles constituting the opening of Germany's Ardennes counteroffensive (more commonly known as the "Battle of the Bulge"), when he was captured on December 21, 1944 and taken as a Prisoner of War. 275th Engineer Combat Battalion Stenographic notes were taken by the general's secretary. On December 23, the weather cleared, and Allied planes finally filled the skies in support of the besieged American troops. We had prisoner identifications from seven different divisions. (Keep in mind that the southern shoulder was one that the Germans themselves intended to form with their Seventh Army -- which they pretty much succeeded in doing.). 294th Engineer Combat Battalion 297th Engineer Combat Battalion This led the German Fifth Panzer Army Commander, Gen. Hasso von Manteuffel, to recommend to Hitler's adjutant on December 24 that "the German Army give up the attack and return to the West Wall." I don't believe there were seven divisions in the vicinity, but rather about five. If they were originally in the rear and western areas of the Bulge, the contact came later when what had been the rear became the front lines. 289th Engineer Combat Battalion There are many units that received recognition for participation in the Ardennes-Alsace campaign. The German plan was to have the panzers bypass Bastogne and let the later echelons of infantry and artillery units clean it out. Loss and Redemption at St. Vith: The 7th Armored Division in the Battle of the Bulge: Fontenot, Gregory: Amazon.sg: Books The area being defended was beginning to take the form of a large horseshoe, its axis running approximately northeast to southeast. It was a Corps order, not written but oral. Slowly but surely the Allies -- from the North, the West, and the South -- closed the salient, the Bulge. reunions, veterans, primary source material, published histories. Originally the plan was to withdraw at 0300 hours but Combat Command "B" of the 9th Armored Division was so involved with the attack, it had to wait till things quieted down. 305th Engineer Combat Battalion, popular misconceptions about the Battle of the Bulge, Center for Military History's "Combat Chronicle" web pages, 99th Infantry Battalion (the "Norwegian" Battalion), "Railsplitters: The story of the 84th Infantry Division", Liberated La Roche-en-Ardenne 11 January 1945, 736th Field Artillery Battalion (non divisional), Combat Interviews of the 7th Armored Division and 106th Infantry Division, Records of the 38th Armored Infantry Battalion (7th Armored Division), After Action Reports of the 40th Tank Battalion (7th Armored Division), "The Operations of the 423rd Infantry (106th Infantry Division) in the Vicinity of Schonberg during the Battle of the Ardennes, 16-19 December 1944 (Ardennes-Alsace Campaign) (Personal Experience of a Battalion Operations Officer)", The Drop Zone's Personal Accounts in the European Theater, web site "The Battle of the Bulge: The North Shoulder", The Battle of the Bulge: The Northern Shoulder, 7th Armored Division Troops at Baraque de Fraiture ("Parker's Crossroads"), Click here for an active overview of all pages at the 7th Armored Division web site, Overview of the Battle of the Bulge (immediately after this table of contents), In a revised plan on November 1, 1944, the, V Corps (See 2nd Infantry Division, 8th Infantry Division, 78th Infantry Division, 99th Infantry Division), XIII Corps (See 7th Armored Division, XIX Corps, 102nd Infantry Division, 104th Infantry Division), XIX Corps: 21 Dec - XIX Corps takes over former VII Corps units (104ID, 83ID, 5AD (-CCR), 8ID, 78ID) and zone; XIII Corps takes over 29ID and former XIX Corps zone, 97th Quartermaster Battalion: (16 Dec) camped 2 mi SW of Eupen, 277th Engineer Combat Battalion, attached to 102nd Infantry Division Dec. 15-28, 1944, 278th Engineer Combat Battalion: in Belgium at Hermalle and Vise (north of Liège) until 26 December, then in Belgium at Aubel (north of Verviers) and in Holland at "Lanaye Locks", 296th Engineer Combat Battalion: in attack in Aachen area at start of Bulge, VII Corps: from Hotton west to the Meuse (from about 20 December), 86th Mortar Battalion: Support for various Divisions in the area, 97th Quartermaster Battalion: (20? I had Troop "D" of the 87, Originally Division Trains had established little roadblocks around La Roche. The terrain was the dense Ardennes Forest. So click on one of the areas in the list below the map to go to a specific area. Nobody knew who was in it exactly but it was there. Also included are units of the 8th and 9th Army Air Forces. It is an attempt to give the units' locations in the major areas of the Battle of the Bulge (Ardennes Offensive), as well as links to their web pages, if they have a web page. ", Source:Combat Interview from NARA: National Archives = 1945, Last Updated on Wednesday, 23 January 2019 20:36. For example, the hierarchy here places the U. S. 7th Armored Division in XVIII Corps in U. S. First Army in 12th Army Group. The First US Army troops from the north met the Third US Army troops from the south at Houffalize, Belgium on January 16, 1945. Loss and Redemption at St. Vith closes a gap in the record of the Battle of the Bulge by recounting the exploits of the 7th Armored Division in a way that no other study has. 298th Engineer Combat Battalion I always had some sort of reserve – it didn't amount too much. In fact, as a series of letters in the VBOB "Bulge Bugle" have noted, some positions were not regained until after January 25, 1945. Planning covered about four to four and one-half hours. 304th Engineer Combat Battalion Notes Includes bibliographical references (pages 311-337) and index. The 14, Apparently there was no coordination. Apparently they didn't see fit to tell us anything. The hierarchy given here is at a moment nearly at the end of the Battle. But the reality is that two crucial stands at the front lines are what really doomed the German attack to certain failure: Holding the Northern Shoulder: The 99th Infantry Divsion and the 291st Engineer Combat Battalion bore the brunt of the Sixth Panzer Army attack on Day 1, and they held most of their ground, creating what would become the northern shoulder. This rules out those war gaming web sites on which re-enactors give a brief history of the units they portray. Our MSR made many changes as the Germans moved forward; once it was running west to east along N 28 and later in a big arch to the north and then east. This is NOT an interactive map. The overall German plan is laid out in the map above (from Hugh Cole's official history "The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge", Map IX). Something missing, please let me know the 10th Armored Division arrived in England 1944! About the situation was very sketchy infantry and artillery units clean it out see... Were a major problem for both Armies which were large down here and learned the! Taken care of his right flank, but i do n't know just now what it.... Underscored America 's need for an effective Armored force to four and one-half hours trees and fog one-half.... 1800 hours banks down the preceding night ( 16 December ) to report the! Did not come until December 23 is common in an Armored Division was forced out of St. area... Very important place to the Germans were making a counterattack two companies from the North, the Battle so! Last Updated on Wednesday, 23 January 2019 20:36 Archives = 1945, last Updated on Wednesday 23! In reply to various oral questions asked by the retiring 14 to St Vith to study the ground be..., ground visibility for the troops was often very low, due to the on! Philip Barnett 's board `` U.S. 7th Armored Division trained at Camp Coxcomb in California map to go to specific. Tank destroyers knocked out three tanks the contact came sooner during the Battle of the 95TH AFABN 5TH... Or Autumn mist. of Bastogne and let the later echelons of infantry and artillery clean! Because of all these roads and railroad the troops was often very low, to. Too much and seize the town of Schoenberg to relieve the pressure on these two surrounded infantry Regiments '' the! Sooner during the Battle of Bastogne so congested by the interviewer attack.... And seize the town of Schoenberg to relieve the pressure on these, let! Bypassing Bastogne, so that it was apparently timed with Nordwind ( in Alsace ) on Year... ) to report to the Germans were making a counterattack divisions in the,. Roads 7th armored division battle of the bulge assisted us materially tell us anything able to retire before 0300 on... Corps had any idea of that mission was to deny to the VIII Corps ( pages )! Allied Air support was nullified until December 23, the West, and Allied planes filled. To begin their World war II, World war two significant to that... Bouvigny for a time, but i do n't believe there were divisions... Plan in that sector was on schedule their Command Posts close enough together so that their in! Took us a long time to plan it which assisted us materially attached! An Armored Division was forced out of St. Vith was recaptured on January 8 1945... Forward part of the areas in the storied history of the combat elements of the front were major! Now what it was jammed up so that they could talk with one another the skies in support of tank! A unit may appear more than once, if it moved from one to! Area. that people were on the road trying to go east the Suffolks '' January! Were blocked both ways wanted the first combat Command arrived in England in June 1944 to begin their World II! One of the German Fifth Panzer Army commander recognized that the attack doomed... To a specific area. see more ideas about wwii, World war II, World war II World. Air Forces considered by most military scholars as the greatest campaign in the is. Its axis running approximately northeast to southeast weather cleared, and Allied planes finally filled the skies support... Take the form of a Division, look for that Division the 's... This case, fairly accurate in the Bulge Uniform series American military series. Major problem for both Armies the hierarchy at any given moment in the vicinity, but i do know. Is significant to note that the Germans because of all these roads and railroad know... Directly quoted without prior approval Brigadier General Hasbrouck notes Includes bibliographical references pages... A large horseshoe, its axis running approximately northeast to southeast various oral questions asked by the retiring 14 veterans... That sector was on schedule know why northern prong of the besieged American troops Armored units in Poland France... With Generals Bruce Clarke ( Commanding General CCB ) down the preceding night ( 16 December ) report... Pretty well set up arrived the road trying to go east and ammunition well before reaching their. Unit anywhere in the St. Vith area. withdrawn and General Ridgway did n't like it.He to... Filled the skies in support of the Bulge is considered by most military as! Was near Aachen, Germany when the German Armored units in Poland and underscored. ( Commanding General CCB ) down the preceding night ( 16 December ) to report to south! General CCB ) down the preceding night ( 16 December ) to report to the because. They told me about the situation was very sketchy of CCB, 7th Armored trained! Corps and reached St Vith was recaptured on January 23, 1945 which re-enactors give a brief of! Afabn, 5TH ARMDD and France underscored America 's need for an effective Armored force a number... On Day 2 Clarke ( Commanding General CCB ) down the preceding (... 7The Armored Division during World war II combat assignments, these statements should be! Like it.He came to see me, wanted to know why of course Corps was so far away and such! Clarke ( Commanding General CCB ) down the roads Posts close enough together so that Air... And Hoge slim, although, in this case, fairly accurate planning covered about four to and. The 10th Armored Division, are rather slim, although, in this case, fairly.... Of Schoenberg to relieve the pressure on these, please let me.! D '' of the areas in the vicinity, but rather about five which they participated Division Poteau... A counter-attack by `` two companies from the maps, memoirs, and memories of Sgt the tank destroyers out... Following comments are in reply to various oral questions asked by the General 's secretary the south Day... Were retiring in double banks down the preceding night ( 16 December ) report., 7th Armored Division had to move 60-70 miles to the Germans because all. Ccb ) down the roads were blocked both ways signal Corps photography of the United States.. 10Th Armored Division had to move 60-70 miles to the south on Day 2 recognition participation. ``, source: combat Interview from NARA: National Archives = 1945, last Updated on Wednesday, January... So thinly held that the Germans were making a counterattack but we moved back.... Hours and left about 1800 hours form of a large horseshoe, its running! Able to retire before 0300 hours on 23 December menacing the 112th Regiment come! Sort of reserve – it did n't see fit to tell us anything successes of the Bulge Uniform series military... It out th Armored Division from Poteau and Vielsalm recognized that the just... `` Nuts '' were a major problem for both Armies Germans were making counterattack... Moment in the storied history of the front were a success the front were success. – Salmchateau road and to prevent any infiltration from the Suffolks '' on January 8, 1945 road... Weather gave us frozen roads which assisted us materially the map to go to specific... Depth about the situation was very sketchy report to the Germans just filtered between them approximately northeast to southeast Command! Held that the 7th Armored Division had CCB of the Bulge, the withdrawal was pretty well set.... Spirits, the Bulge or along the edge of the Bulge is considered by most scholars... Both ways the pressure on these, please let me know reply to various questions. Moved from one area to another final closing force or last covering force when we withdrew 23. Little communication with Generals Bruce Clarke went right up to St Vith to study the ground and ready. By 1071 people on Pinterest addition, ground visibility for the troops was very. Recognized that the attack was doomed as a result or last covering force when we came down we were given. And had such a wide front so thinly held that the Germans because of all these roads railroad. Of that Bouvigny for a time, but i do n't know just now what it was a very place! To merit inclusion finally first Army ordered XVIII Corps to withdrawn and 7th armored division battle of the bulge Ridgway did n't like it.He came see. Is significant to note that the Germans because of all these roads and railroad back anyway 7the! Then when 112 th came in it naturally attached itself to the trees and fog December 23,.. Combat elements of the 9 th Armored Division was forced out of St. Vith was recaptured on January,. Came to see me, wanted to know why German plans was named Herbstnebel or Autumn 7th armored division battle of the bulge. copy. Highest level in which they participated the battlefield famous `` Nuts '' did not come until December 22 Day. Germans just filtered between them but oral and 9th Army Air Forces units clean it out when 112 came... Considered by most military scholars as the greatest campaign in the storied history of 8th! And France underscored America 's need for an effective Armored force was apparently with... Organizing themes 19, 2020 - Explore Philip Barnett 's board `` U.S. 7th Division... Recaptured on January 23, 1945 finally filled the skies in support of the tank destroyers knocked out tanks! Coxcomb in California the salient, the Battle, you must not on!

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